# A manual for a computer science teacher

## 5th grade, 2nd quarter (7–8 lessons)

**Topics** :

- Programming Basics: Familiarity with the basics of text-based programming (e.g. Python or visual programming environments like Scratch but with more complex projects).
- Working with tables: complex calculations using formulas, creating graphs, sorting and filtering data.
- Cybersecurity: the basics of data protection, what viruses are, phishing, rules for using complex passwords.

**Lesson 1: Introduction to Python/Scratch Programming Basics**

**Objective:**

To introduce students to the basics of programming using text or visual environments such as Python or Scratch (with more complex projects).

**Lesson plan:**

**Introduction to programming**(5 min).- Discussion: what is programming and why is it needed.
- A brief explanation of the Python or Scratch programming language.

**Basic commands and syntax**(10 min).- Introduction to basic constructs (e.g. in Python – print(), variables; in Scratch – action blocks).

**Practice: first task**(15 min).- Students create a simple program: in Python, a program that prints text on the screen; in Scratch, a program that performs an action on a character.

**Discussion of errors and their correction**(10 min).- Working with typical errors (syntax errors in code, logical errors).

**Reflection and summing up**(5 min).- Questions: “What is the most difficult thing in programming? How to fix a bug?”

**Homework:**

Create a small program at home (depending on the language you choose).

**Lesson 2: Going Deeper into Programming – Variables and Loops**

**Objective:**

To teach students the use of variables and loops in programming.

**Lesson plan:**

**Review of the material from the previous lesson**(5 min.).- Questions: “What is programming?”

**Introduction to variables**(10 min).- Explanation: what are variables and why are they needed in programs.
- Example: a program with variables to store data.

**Working with cycles**(15 min).- Introduction to loops: how to create repeating actions (in Python, a loop
`for`

, in Scratch, a “repeat” block). - Practice: Students create a program using a loop.

- Introduction to loops: how to create repeating actions (in Python, a loop
**Practical work**(10 min).- Students create a program with variables and a loop to perform a simple task (for example, print numbers from 1 to 10).

**Reflection and summing up**(5 min).- Questions: “What is a loop? Why are variables needed?”

**Homework:**

Create a program with a loop and a variable.

**Lesson 3: Working with Spreadsheets – Introduction and Advanced Calculations**

**Objective:**

To teach students to work with tables and use formulas for complex calculations.

**Lesson plan:**

**Introduction to Spreadsheets**(5 min).- Questions: “What are tables for?”

**Creating a table and entering data**(10 min.)- Demonstration: Creating a table and entering data into cells (for example, school grade data).

**Working with formulas**(15 min).- Explanation: what are formulas in tables (summation, multiplication and other operations).
- Practice: Students enter simple formulas to perform calculations in a table.

**Complex calculation task**(10 min).- Students create a table to calculate the average grade for subjects or calculations for a given problem.

**Reflection and summing up**(5 min).- Questions: “How are formulas used in tables?”

**Homework:**

Create a table at home and perform calculations using formulas.

**Lesson 4: Working with tables – creating charts, sorting and filtering data**

**Objective:**

To teach students to create graphs, sort and filter data in tables.

**Lesson plan:**

**Review of the material from the previous lesson**(5 min.).- Questions: “How to use formulas for calculations in tables?”

**Creating graphs**(15 min).- Explanation: How data in tables can be presented graphically.
- Practice: Students create a graph based on table data (e.g., a performance chart).

**Sorting data**(10 min).- Demonstration: How to sort data in ascending/descending order.
- Practice: sorting data in a table.

**Filtering data**(10 min).- Explanation: How to filter data to select the information you need.
- Practical task: filtering data according to specified conditions (for example, ratings above a certain value).

**Reflection and summing up**(5 min).- Questions: “How to use sorting and filtering to work with big data?”

**Homework:**

Create a table with a graph and apply sorting and filtering.

**Lesson 5: Cybersecurity Basics – Data Protection and Passwords**

**Objective:**

To introduce students to the basics of cybersecurity, explain what data protection is and how to create strong passwords.

**Lesson plan:**

**Introduction to Cybersecurity**(5 min).- Discussion: What is cybersecurity? Why do you need to protect your data?

**Passwords and their protection**(10 min).- Explanation: what is a strong password, how to create it (a strong password should contain letters, numbers, special characters).
- Examples of strong and weak passwords.

**Practical task: creating a password**(10 min).- Students create their own passwords and rate their strength.

**Storing passwords**(10 min).- Explanation: How and where to store passwords securely (password managers, avoiding using one password for all sites).

**Reflection and summing up**(5 min).- Questions: “How to protect your data with a strong password?”

**Homework:**

Create and write down at home a strong password for your account using the principles discussed in class.

**Lesson 6: Cybersecurity Basics – Viruses and Phishing**

**Objective:**

To teach students the basics of virus and phishing protection.

**Lesson plan:**

**Introduction to Computer Viruses**(10 min).- Discussion: what are viruses, how do they get on a computer, what the consequences can be.
- Examples of viruses and their impact on data.

**Protection against viruses**(10 min).- Explanation: how to protect yourself from viruses (antivirus programs, updates, be careful when downloading files).
- Demonstration: How antivirus software works.

**What is phishing?**(10 min).- Explanation: How phishing attacks are aimed at obtaining data (fake emails, links).
- Examples of phishing attacks and how to recognize them.

**Practical task**(10 min).- Students analyze sample emails and websites to identify signs of phishing.

**Reflection and summing up**(5 min).- Questions: “What should I do to avoid becoming a victim of viruses or phishing?”

**Homework:**

Study the antivirus program at home and check your computer for threats.

**Lesson 7: Summary and practical work**

**Objective:**

To consolidate knowledge of programming, working with tables and cybersecurity through practical assignments.

**Lesson plan:**

**Review of the material covered**(10 min).- Questions on all topics: programming, tables, cybersecurity.

**Practical work**(25 min).- Students complete tasks to create a program, work with tables (formulas, graphs), and discuss cybersecurity rules.

**Summing up the quarter**(10 min.)- Discussion: what was the most difficult and interesting during this period.

**Conclusion**

The manual is designed for 7-8 lessons, which will allow 5th grade students to deepen their knowledge of programming, working with tables and the basics of cybersecurity, as well as acquire skills for their practical application.